I only watched the first 10 minutes of it (have to get back to work) but I might be able to partially answer this question.
Through the 90’s several observations were made which allowed us to calculate the Hubble Constant, a measure of the rate of expansion of the universe. This has lead to the theory of Dark Energy which is calculated to take up ~68% of all energy in the universe (with 27% going to Dark Matter, calculated from the gravitational dynamics of galaxies, and ~5% to normal matter like you and me). We have also discovered that the universe expanded very rapidly in the beginning, cooled off for a bit, and is now expanding at a faster pace again.
We also saw direct measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) which is the radiation left over from the big bang. It shows us a snapshot view of the universe at 380,000 years old when the universe became transparent instead of being opaque. Kind of like if you’re in a plane taking off through fog and then suddenly you’re above the clouds looking down at the rolling features below.
In theoretical physics we saw the popularization of string theory with the start of M-theory which makes use of 11 dimensions. I’m not too familiar with string theory so I’ll leave that one alone.
I mean there is definitely some stuff that needs to be modernized, a lot of the technological predictions need to be adjusted and such, but some of the artistic license stuff worries me, for instance I heard that instead of talking to the Secretary General of the U.N., Supervisor Karellen talks to a midwestern farmer which seems kind of like an overused trope. Hopefully it is done in a way that makes sense though. I just hope it keeps the fundamental ideas about human evolution and the forked path between technological development and stagnation, or a hive mind.